Dates and Contact Information

Contact Ms. Sasso at or
Tutorials: Saturday 9:30 - 11:30.

BOOK RETURNS: Returned books must have your name in them or you will be charged.

Oedipus at Colonus: Essays are due
Multiple Choice: All are due on 1/7/2019.
Read Lysistrata: 12/17 Projects due after the break.
Prose Passages: Introduction paragraphs and annotations: 1/7/17.
Read Candide, Beowulf, and Frankenstein. In that order :) Gather information for Candide project.

German Lieder in the Romantic Age

Perhaps it is time for us to hear German in a different way. 

Here is the "Ode to Joy" from Beethoven's fantastic 9th Symphony -- This is the choral ode in the fourth movement. As for translations, you just cannot translate Alle Menschen werden Brüder, / Wo dein sanfter Flügel weilt effectively into English. 

The lyrics are from a Romantic poem by Friedrich Schiller which Beethoven adapted for this symphony:  You can use this poem for your Romantic poetry paper.  Beethoven is often seen as a musician who spans the breach from Classical (Enlightenment) to Romantic, but the 9th Symphony is by far in the latter camp. 

Then, check out the assortment of lovely songs from Robert Schumann, also from the Romantic Era. 

The Romantic Era hearkens back to medieval and mythological times. Many works of music and art feature Arthurian tales, such as Richard Wagner's Parsifal and Tristan und Isolde. Since Beowulf features characters from Germanic-Norse mythology, here is one of the songs from Die Walkurie, the second opera in Richard Wagner's massive four-opera tetralogy, Der Ring des Nibelungen  (The Ring of the Nibelung).  J.R.R. Tolkien will use some of this myth in his own "Ring Cycle" written about 70 years after Wagner.  

Wagner's "Ring Cycle" is a massive, epic Romantic work that follows Northern German mythology -- Siegmund, makes an appearance in Beowulf (page 59) in one of the songs sung in Hrothgar's castle.   

Moving on in the 19th century, Mahler, at the end of the Romantic Era, writes these tragic but beautiful songs, Kindertotenlieder.  As a child, Mahler lost six of his siblings, and the death of a younger brother affected him deeply.  The title translates as Songs for Dead Children, and clearly, the German here is much more poetic. Mahler would also lose a beloved daughter not long after these songs were published, and his wife Alma blamed her death on him, for writing these songs in the first place.  

Moving into the 20th Century, here is Richard Strauss. Remember the opening from 2001: A Space Odyssey? That music is Also sprach Zarathustra, a tone poem by Strauss. But since we are looking at words, not sounds, here is the fantastic soprano Jessye Norman singing Strauss' Four Last Songs, composed at the end of his life.  As an old man, Strauss was left alone by the Nazis during WWII, and there is this fantastic story about how an American oboist came upon him at the end of the war, and got him to write an oboe concerto.